Power Systems Protection
Power Plant Protection Systems - Principles of Protection
This series will train personnel on the principles of protection systems including different schemes used in the protection of: generators, buses, transmission and distribution lines, transformers, motors etc.    
COURSES $65 - $85 

2101 - Elements of System Protection 
2102 - Types of Protective Relays 
2103 - Monitoring System Conditions 
2104 - Fault Characteristics 
2105 - Generator Protection 
2106 - Transformer Protection 
2107 - Bus Protection 
2108 - Motor Protection 
2109 - Line Protection 
2110 - Pilot Protection 
2111 - Protection for System Stability 
2112- Testing & Commissioning of Protective Schemes
2113 - Power Line Carriers 
2114 - Fault Investigation and Analysis 
2115 - Introduction to Static Relaying 
2116 - Coordination of Protection Devices 
2117 - Power Supply for Protection & Control Systems 
2118 - Energy Centre Operations 
2119 - Telecommunications Protection I - HVSP Devices 
2120 - Telecommunications Protection II - Installation and Configuration
2121 - Supervisory Control System (SCADA) 
2122 - Inadvertent Trips - Cause and Prevention 
2123 - Fault Calculations and Relay Settings 
2124 - Testing Techniques 
2125 - Programmable Logic Controllers 

7101: Electrical Fundamentals, Basic Electricity
7102: Electrical Fundamentals, Properties of AC Circuits
7103: Electrical Fundamentals, Power and Power Facto
7104: Electrical Fundamentals, Three Phase Systems
In 2004 our partner 360training acquired Canadian training provider L&K International, a leading provider of transmission, power, distribution training to the power, energy and utilities energy worldwide to form the worldwide Technical Skills and Safety division. Technical Skills and Safety Division closes largest single contract in company's history, providing a multi-year training contract to key US defense contract.

We've helped most of the world's best-known power and energy organizations maximize their efficiencies and enhance their training performance including PacifiCorp, Southern Company, Sierra Pacific, Tennessee Valley Authority, FirstEnergy Corporation, Florida Power & Light, Orion Power, Duke Energy, MidAmerican Energy, Energy Corporation and Puget Sound Energy.


Elements of System Protection
The main purpose of this module is to overview the function of protection schemes, including general protection philosophy and its impact on the operation of the system.
After study of this course and the associated workbook, the student should be able to understand these concepts & be able to apply them to day-to-day work activities.
  • Why protection is necessary
  • The philosophy and objectives of protection.
  • Zones of protection – local and backup.
  • Causes & consequences of faults.
  • Tolerable and intolerable fault conditions.
  • Monitoring relay performance.
  • Factors affecting relay application.
  • The need for coordination
  • Relay and circuit breaker combinations.
  • Elementary tripping circuit.
  • IEEE Standard device numbers.
  • Control circuit schematics.

Types of Protection Relays
The purpose of this course is to demonstrate the operation of the most common types of protection relay. This in turn will prepare the student for succeeding courses which deal with protective schemes often using a combination of these protection relays.
At the end, thestudentss should be able to understand these things
  • ◦Components of the differential relay.
  • ◦Where differential protection is applied.
  • ◦The differential principle -bus protection.
  • ◦Transformer differential protection.
  • ◦Restraint and harmonic restraint.
  • ◦Components of the over current relay.
  • ◦Instantaneous over current protection.
  • ◦Time-over current protection.
  • ◦Adjustment of pick-up and time dial.
  • ◦Construction of directional relays.
  • ◦The need for directional elements.
  • ◦Operation of directional relays.
  • ◦The induction cylinder relay.
  • ◦Operation of distance relays -balanced beam and MHO type.
  • ◦Circle diagrams.
  • ◦Effect of load impedance.
  • ◦Three-zone elements; back-up protection.

Monitoring System Conditions
This course presents concepts which are vital tools in the interpretation of system operating conditions.
Upon completion of this course and the associated workbook, the student should know the following overall concepts and apply them to his  work activities. He will also be able to answer test questions on the following subjects:
  • ◦Function of current and voltage transformers
  • ◦Effect of burden and saturation
  • ◦CT performance ratings
  • ◦VT connections
  • ◦The coupling capacitor VT
  • ◦Polarity, polarity test
  • ◦Three phase circuit diagrams
  • ◦Directional sensing for ground faults
  • ◦Pharos diagrams, construction and interpretation
  • ◦Phase rotation -sequence
  • ◦Per unit calculations
  • ◦Base voltage and base MVA
  • ◦OHMIC impedance and per unit impedance
  • ◦MVA fault capacity

Fault Characteristics
This course will discuss the characteristics of different types of faults, and their effects on the power system. Knowledge of this material is vital to understanding the protective schemes that are presented in future course Students should be able to answer related test questions on these subjects:
  • ◦Effect of load impedance on current flow. ·
  • ◦Effect of short circuit impedance on fault current. ·
  • ◦Voltage drop through the system under fault conditions. ·
  • ◦Impedance phase angle. ·
  • ◦Safety grounding: the ground mat. ·
  • ◦Neutral grounding: generator or transformer. ·
  • ◦Delta system grounding transformer. ·
  • ◦Aerial ground wires on transmission lines. ·
  • ◦Limitation of ground fault current through impedance grounding. ·
  • ◦Ungrounded systems – Hazards & ground fault detection. ·
  • ◦Pharos diagrams for different types of faults. ·
  • ◦Resonance.
  • ◦Ferroresonance.
  • ◦Distortion of balanced conditions under the various types of faults. ·
  • ◦Transposition of balanced conditions at generator to unbalanced conditions at the fault. ·
  • ◦Production of positive, negative, and zero sequence components. ·
  • ◦Effect of negative and zero sequence components. ·
  • ◦Zero and negative sequence relays. ·
  • ◦Rules for study of symmetrical components.

Generator Protection
In the generator protection course we will review the types of fault that can occur on generators and discuss the various protection schemes that are used on both small and large generators.
  • ◦Types of prime movers.
  • ◦Generator terminal connections.
  • ◦Generator bus connections.
  • ◦Unit and station service transformers.
  • ◦Generator mechanical problems.
  • ◦General electrical faults.
  • ◦Generator and prime mover tripping arrangements.
  • ◦Phase fault primary protection.
  • ◦Ground fault primary protection.
  • ◦Backup protection.
  • ◦Negative phase sequence protection.
  • ◦Generator capability curve.
  • ◦Loss of field protection.
  • ◦Effect of system disturbances.
  • ◦Generator off-line protection.

Transformer Protection
Our transformer protection course will review the types of faults that can occur in transformers and to present the different protection schemes that are installed on large and small transformers.
  • ◦Transformer features.
  • ◦Types of faults.
  • ◦Over current protection.
  • ◦Backup coordination.
  • ◦Primary fuses.
  • ◦Differential protection.
  • ◦In-rush current: harmonic filter.
  • ◦Phasing of differential CTs.
  • ◦Selecting CT taps.
  • ◦Calculation of mismatch.
  • ◦Differential protection for multi-winding transformers.
  • ◦Connection of multiple restraint coils.
  • ◦Limitations due to parallel CTs.
  • ◦Single-phase transformer CT connections.
  • ◦Ground (zero-sequence) protection.
  • ◦Directional ground protection.
  • ◦Remote transfer tripping.
  • ◦Thermal relays.
  • ◦Gas pressure relays.
  • ◦Transformer overall protection schemes.
  • ◦Protection of transformers in parallel.
  • ◦Reactor protection.
  • ◦Shunt capacitor protection.

Bus Protection
In the bus protection course we will cover the different bus layouts that are used in power systems and to present the different protection schemes that are installed to protect against bus faults.

Motor Protection
The purpose of this course is to familiarize the participant with the features of motor operation and the most common types of protective devices that are installed. Participants should be able to understand the following overall concepts and apply them to their day-to-day work activities.

Line Protection
Our lineprotection course will present the broad categories of line configuration and discuss the various types of protection schemes that are employed. Particular attention is paid to coordination for selective tripping and isolation of faulty circuits.

Pilot Protection
The pilot protection course was written to familiarize participants with the principles of pilot protection, the various schemes used and the different types of communication channels employed.

power systems protection, power plant protection systems, Protection relays, transformer protection, generator protection
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